While microcontrollers are geared towards usage in embedded systems http://www.topgw2gold.com/, microprocessors are primarily used in computing machines which execute programs written in higher level languages.
A microprocessor needs external memory and connections with input output ports to function, while microcontrollers have all these peripherals on board, which makes their operation substantially fast compared to microprocessors. While a microcontroller may achieve higher speed in operation, it's functionality is limited by its small instruction set.
Most importantly, microprocessors of higher complexity, like the x86 family of computer processors are programmable and can therefore execute a wide variety of functions http://www.d3face.com/, compared to microcontrollers which are designed to execute very specific and limited tasks. Hope this microprocessor v s microcontroller comparison has served to clearly illuminate the differences between the two types of integrated chips.